5 Resume Principles

The CV or resume has been pronounced dead many times over. Yet, they’re still around and are what many recruiters and hiring managers ask for. So, if you’re working on your resume, here’s what I’ve learnt about the 5 principles that great resumes follow.


1. No typos and obvious grammatical errors. People spend 30 seconds on your resume, 60 seconds if you are lucky. They expect you have spent significant time on your resume as it is a one page representation of you as a professional. Typos really muck with your chances – especially in a day and age when Word will do it automatically for you.

2. Consistency. Everything on the resume needs to be consistent with what came before. Formatting is the obvious candidate here. Fonts and font sizes need to be the same. If titles or locations are italicized or laid out in a certain format (e.g. State, Country), all titles and locations need to follow suit.

Also, I recommend minimizing format experiments – I am biased toward letting the content stand out.

3. Space use and section split. This advice is focused on the 1 page resume. There are a few things to keep in mind with regards to space –

  • First, the resume shouldn’t look empty. Lots of white spaces or really large font gives the impression that you haven’t done much. The best way to write a resume is to put relevant achievements to fill 1.5 pages and then remove the less important ones. A font like Arial or Calibri with a font size of 10 is ideal if you have 3-4 years of work experience. Use margins between moderate and narrow.
  • Next, the typical sections are some form of Work Experience, Education and Additional Info. Very roughly, the split of these sections (and what is in them) should be representative of the time you spend on them. So, if you have done your Masters somewhere and worked for 8 years, you’d imagine that work would be 50% of the resume, education around 20% and additional info around 20% with 10% of white space on the top and bottom. It is odd if you are more additional info over work experience, for example.
  • This applies even within work experience. It is very odd if a job where you spent 1 year has 6 bullets when you’ve only written one for a place where you spent 3 years of your life (I’ve seen many such examples). It is okay to add an extra bullet or two for the most relevant experiences. But, don’t overdo it.
  • Finally, it is okay to have extra-curricular activities listed under work but I wouldn’t go beyond a bullet. Use the space to describe your skills.

4. Skills relevant for the job. There are folks who advise people to create different resumes for different companies. I don’t really like doing that. But, if it works for you, go for it. The implicit principle they point to is to tailor your skills to the job at hand. And, that’s important. There are two steps here.

First, every line should start with an action verb – ends with “ed.” There are many great resources out on the internet that’ll help you pick the right action verb. Second, the action verbs should ideally correlate with the role you are applying for. For example, if you are applying for a role that is heavy on data, I would imagine to see variants of “Analyzed,” “Evaluated,” and “Modeled” in your resume. As a general rule, you should be able to boil most roles and job descriptions for the 3-4 skills you really need. And, you should hopefully be able to highlight your relevant transferable skills.

5. Achievements, not actions. The resume isn’t about what you did, it is about what you achieved. So, every bullet in your resume (ideally) should be achievement focused. And, the best way to do that is to have lots of numbers – numbers stand out. This is the part I struggled with the most and this is the part every person I’ve helped struggled with the most. So, let’s break this down further –

Education achievements Common practice is to state a list of education related achievement – “X scholarship” or “Y club President.” The example achievement lines would be –
– Selected among top x% of students for X scholarship
– Elected President of Y club and led club to record year of fundraising ($20,000)

Work achievements – There are 2 ways to show achievement at work –
$ saved/earned or % improved. The best bullets will end with the direct impact of your work. If you have just a few of these, make sure they’re always on top.
Examples:
Led cross functional team to solve call center NPS and instituted training program that led to better customer retention, resulting in $3M savings in 2015.
Analyzed a 500,000 customer data-set and identified opportunities to reduce churn by increasing customer touchpoints, resulting in 3% churn improvement.

Value bullet with a number. The next alternative is to at least put some numbers to show the size of the problem. E.g. worked on a project for a client worth $5M dollars or Coordinated with 14 functions and 58 people to solve a hairy problem.

Additional info achievements – Achievement focused bullets apply here too. For example, the last line is typically a line on interests. This line is wasted if you just put in – “Movies, shopping, walking, reading” or some variant of that. Pick one and tell us something cool. An example – “Running enthusiast and recently ran the X marathon.” That serves as a conversation great starter.


A great resume typically goes through 10-15 versions before it is perfected. Of course, it is ideal you don’t drop your resume and hope for a recruiter to read it. The best way in is through referrals (More in the 3 phases of the job search process). But, when it is eventually read, the role of the resume is to make the person reading want to talk to you to learn more.

Getting to that takes work. But, when the work is done, it shows.

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